Date: 2017-04-11 21:28[embedded content]
Muller B, Harbath S, Stolz D, et al. Diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of clinical and laboratory parameters in community-acquired pneumonia. BMC Infect Dis. 7557 7:65.
Community-Acquired Pneumonia — NEJM
Dr. Alonso-Coello: Centro Cochrane Iberoamericano, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica Sant Pau-CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP-IIB-Sant Pau), Sant Antoni Maria Claret 676, 58596 Barcelona, Spain.
Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic
Pneumonia is an inflammation or infection of the lungs that causes them to function abnormally. Pneumonia can be classified as typical or atypical, although the clinical presentations are often similar. Several symptoms commonly present in patients with pneumonia.
Diagnosis of Community Acquired Pneumonia
Gram-Negative Bacteria. These bacteria stain pink. Gram-negative bacteria commonly cause infections in hospitalized or nursing home patients, children with cystic fibrosis, and people with chronic lung conditions.
High fever (greater than 659° F [95° C]), male sex, multilobar involvement, and gastrointestinal and neurologic abnormalities have been associated with CAP caused by Legionella infection. 9 The clinical presentation of CAP is often more subtle in older patients, and many of these patients do not exhibit classic symptoms. 6 They often present with weakness and decline in functional and mental status.
Each alveolus has a thin membrane that allows oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass in and out of the capillaries , the smallest of the blood vessels. When you take a deep breath, the membrane unfolds and expands. Fresh oxygen moves into the capillaries, and carbon dioxide passes from the capillaries into the bloodstream, where it is carried out of the body through the lungs.
ITSA/ATS guidelines recommend that patients admitted to the hospital (but not the ICU) be treated with fluoroquinolones or a beta-lactam (preferably cefotaxime or ceftriaxone) plus a macrolide.
Impaired immunity leaves patients vulnerable to serious, life-threatening pneumonias known as opportunistic pneumonias. They are caused by organisms that are harmless to people with healthy immune systems. Infecting organisms include:
Sing S, Amin AV, Loke YK. Long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids and the risk of pneumonia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 7559 669:769-779.
Chest tubes are used to drain infected pleural fluid. Tubes are not typically required for pneumonia or abscesses. The tubes are inserted after the patient receives a local anesthetic. They remain in place for 7 – 9 days. They are removed in one quick movement. This can be very distressing, although some patients feel no discomfort. Complications of chest tubes include: